Product Notes

Basic Boiler System Schematic

Below is a summary of problems associated with the common impurities in water and solutions to each problem.

List Of Problems Caused By Impurities In Water

 

Impurity (Chemical Formula)

Problems

Common Chemical Treatment Methods

Alkalinity (HCO3-, CO32- and CaCO3)

Carryover of feedwater into steam, produce CO2 in steam leading to formation of carbonic acid (acid attack)

Neutralizing amines, filming amines, combination of both, and lime-soda.

Hardness (calcium and magnesium salts, CaCO3)

Primary source of scale in heat exchange equipment

Lime softening, phosphate, chelates and polymers

Iron (Fe3+ and Fe2+)

Causes boiler and water line deposits

Phosphate, chelates and polymers

Oxygen (O2)

Corrosion of water lines, boiler, return lines, heat exchanger equipments, etc. (oxygen attack)

Oxygen scavengers, filming amines and deaeration

pH

Corrosion occurs when pH drops below 8.5

pH can be lowered by addition of acids and increased by addition of alkalies

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

Corrosion

Chlorination

Silica (SiO2)

Scale in boilers and cooling water systems

Lime softening

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