Product Dose

Uses of Copper Compounds: Table A - Uses of Copper Sulphate

Classification Applications
Agriculture  
Major uses Preparation of Bordeaux and Burgundy mixtures for use as fungicides
  Manufacture of other copper fungicides such as copper-lime dust, tribasic
  copper sulphate, copper carbonate and cuprous oxide
  Manufacture of insecticides such as copper arsenite and Paris green
  Control of fungus diseases (see below)
  Correction of copper deficiency in soils
  Correction of copper deficiency in animals
  Growth stimulant for fattening pigs and broiler chickens
  Molluscicide for the destruction of slugs and snails, particularly the snail host of the liver fluke
Other uses Seed dressing
  Soil steriliser, e.g. Cheshunt compound (a mixture of copper sulphate and ammonium carbonate) to prevent "damping-off" disease of tomato, etc.
  Control and prevention of foot rot in sheep and cattle
  Bacteriastat for addition to sheep dips
  Disinfectant in prevention of the spread of swine erysepelas and white scours in calves
  Control of scum in farm ponds
  Plant nutrient in rice fields
  Preservative for wooden posts, wooden buildings, etc.
  Preservative for wooden fruit boxes, planting baskets and other containers
  Ingredient of vermin repellents, e.g. for application to bark of trees against rabbits
  Stimulant of latex yield on rubber plantations
  Protection against algal growths on flower pots
Public Health and Medicine  
  Destruction of algal blooms in reservoirs and swimming pools
  Prevention of the spread of athletes foot in warm climates, by incorporation in the flooring mixture of swimming baths
  Control of bilharzia in tropical countries, as a molluscicide
  Prevention of malaria, in the preparation of Paris green for use against mosquito larvae
  Antiseptic and germicide against fungus infections
  Catalyst or raw material for the preparation of copper catalysts used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products
Industry  
Adhesives Preservative in casein and other glues
  Additive to book binding pastes and glues, for insecticidal purposes
  Additive to animal and silicate glues to give water resistance
Building Timber preservative and in the preparation of other wood preservatives, e.g. oil based copper naphthenates and water based copper/chrome/arsenic for the
  prevention of woodworms and wood rots
  Ingredient of plaster to prevent fungus infection, e.g. to prevent the spread of dry rot
  Ingredient of concrete, both as a colouring matter and as an antiseptic, e.g. for use in and around swimming pools
  Modification of the setting of concrete
  Protection against lichens, moulds and similar growths on asbestos cement roofing and other building materials
  Control of the growth of tree roots in sewers
Chemical Preparation of catalysts for use in many industries
  Purification of gases, e.g. removal of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulphide
  Precipitation promoter in purifying zinc sulphate solutions
  Precipitation of alkaloids as double salts from crude extracts
  Source of other copper compounds such as copper carbonate silicate/arsenite/
  aceto-arsenite/resinate/stearate/tartrate/oleate naphthenate/chromate/chlorate
  /alginate/fluoride/hydroxide, cuprous oxide/chloride/cyanide and
  cuprammonium compounds
 Decorative trades  Colouring glass
   Colouring cement and plaster
   Colouring ceramic wares
   Alteration of metal colours, e.g. darkening of zinc, colouring aluminium
 Dyestuffs  Reagent in the preparation of dyestuffs intermediates
   Catalyst or raw material for the preparation of copper catalysts, e.g. preparation of phenols from diazo compounds, preparation of phthalocyanine dyes
 Leather and  Mordant in dyeing
   Reagent in tanning processes
 Metal and  Electrolyte in copper refining
 electrical  Electrolyte in copper plating and electro forming
   Electrolytic manufacture of cuprous compounds, e.g. cuprous oxide
   Constituent of the electrodes and electrolytes in batteries
   Electrolyte in the manufacture of copper powder
   Electrolyte in aluminium plating and anodising
   Copper coating steel wire, prior to wire drawing
   Pickling copper wire, etc., prior to enamelling
   Providing a suitable surface for marking out iron and steel
 Mining  Flotation reagent in the concentration of ores, e.g. zinc blende
 Paint  Raw material for the manufacture of copper naphthenate and other copper compounds for use in anti-fouling paints
   Preparation of certain varnish or paint dryers, e.g. copper oleate, copper stearate
   Preparation of certain pigments, e.g. copper chromate, copper ferrocyanide, copper phthalocyanine
 Printing  Etching agent for process engraving
   Electrolyte in the preparation of electrotype
   Ingredient of printing inks
 Synthetic rubber  Preparation of catalysts used in cracking certain gaseous and liquid petroleum
 and petroleum  Fractions
   Preparation of cuprous chloride, used in the purification of butadiene and in the separation of acetylene derivatives
   Preparation of catalysts used in chlorinating rubber latex
   Purification of petroleum oils
 Textiles  Preparation of copper compounds for rot-proofing canvas and other fabrics
   Rot-proofing sandbags
   Mordant, especially in calico printing
   Cuprammonium process for the production of rayon
   Production of aniline black and diazo colours for dyeing
   "After coppering" to increase the fastness of dyes
   Catalyst in the manufacture of cellulose ethers and in cellulose acetylation
 Miscellaneous  Improving the burning qualities of coke
   Laboratory analytical work
   Ingredient of laundry marking ink
   Dyeing of hair and horn
   Ingredient of hair dyes of the phenylene diamine or pyrogallol type
   Preparation of chlorophyll as a colouring material for food stuffs
   Imparting a green colour in fireworks
   Activator in the preparation of active carbons
   Preservative for wood pulp
   Preservation of fishing nets and hides on trawls
   Obtaining a blue-black finish on steel
   Treatment of carbon brushes
   Ingredient of the solution used for preserving plant specimens in their natural colours
  Impregnation in fruit wrapping papers to prevent storage rots

 

Uses of Copper Compounds: Table B - Plant Diseases Amenable to Control by Copper Fungicides

  Disease  
Plant Common name Pathogen
Almond Shot hole Clasterosporium carpophilum
  Rust Puccinia pruni-spinosae
  Blossom wilt Sclerotinia laxa and Sclerotinia fructigena
  Leaf curl Taphrina deformans
Aloe Anthracnose Colletotrichum agaves
Antirrhinum Rust Puccinia antirrhini
Apple Pink disease Corticium salmonicolor
  Fireblight Erwinia amylovora
  Bitter rot Glomerella cingulata
  Canker Nectria galligena
  Blotch Phyllosticta solitaria
  Black rot Physalospora obtusa
  Blossom wilt Sclerotinia laxa
  Scab Venturia inaequalis
Apricot Shot hole Clasterosporium carpophilum
  Rust Puccinia pruni-spinosae
  Blossom wilt Sclerotinia laxa and Sclerotinia fructigena
Areca Nut Thread blight Corticium koleroga
Arrowroot Banded leaf blight Corticium solani
Artichoke (Globe)   Ramularia cynarae
Asparagus Rust Puccinia asparagi
Avocado Fruit spot Cercospora purpurea
  Anthracnose (Black spot) Glomerella cingulata
  Bacterial rot Pseudomonas syringae
  Scab Sphaceloma perseae
 Azalea  Flower spot  Ovulinia azaleae
 Banana  Black rot (Die back)  Botryodiplodia theobromae
   Helminthosporiosis  Helminthosporium sp.
   Sigatoka disease (Leaf spot)  Mycosphaerella musicola
 Barley  Snow damage  Typhula itoana
   Covered smut  Ustilago hordei
 Bean (Broad)  Leaf spot  Asochyta pisi
   Chocolate spot  Botrytis cinerea
   Rust  Uromyces fabae
 Bean (French and Runner)  Anthracnose  Colletotrichum lindemuthianum
   Powdery mildew  Erysiphe polygoni
   Halo blight  Pseudomonas medicaginis var phaseolicola
   Rust Uromyces appendiculatus
   Common blight  Xanthomonas phaseoli
 Begonia  Mildew  Oidium begoniae
 Betel  Leaf spot  Bacterium betle
   Leaf spot  Glomeralla cingulata
   Foot rot  Phytophthora colocasiae
   Leaf rot  Phytophthora parasitica
 Blackberry  Cane spot  Elsinoe veneta
 Blueberry  Powdery mildew  Microsphaera alni var. vaccinii
   Leaf rust  Pucciniastrum myrtilli
   Fruit rot  Sclerotinia vaccinii-corymbosi
 Brassicas  Damping off  Oipidium brassicae
   Downy mildew  Peronospora parasitica
   Black leg (Canker)  Phoma lingam
   Black rot  Xanthomonas campestris
 Cacao  Brown pod rot (Die back)  Botryodiplodia theobromae
   Witches' broom  Marasmius perniciosus
   Black pod rot  Phytophthora palmivora
 Calendula  Leaf spot  Cercospora calendulae
 Carnation  Ring spot  Didymellina dianthi
   Leaf spot  Septoria dianthi
   Rust  Uromyces dianthi
  Carrot Blight  Alternaria dauci
  Bacterial soft rot  Bacterium carotovorum
   Leaf spot  Cercospora carotae
 Cassava  Leaf spot  Cercospora henningsii
 Castor oil  Leaf spot  Phyllosticta bosensis
 Cattleya  Black rot  Phythium ultimum
 Celery  Blight  Cercospora apii
   Leaf spot  Septoria apii and Septoria apii graveolentis
 Cherry  Shot hole  Clasterosporium carpophilum
   Leaf spot  Coccomyces hiemalis
   Bitter rot  Glomerella cingulata
   Leaf scorch  Gnomonia erythrostoma
   Bacterial canker  Pseudomonas mors-prunorum
   Brown rot (Blossom wilt)  Sclerotinia laxa and Sclerotinia fructigena
   Scab  Venturia cerasi
 Chestnut  Blight  Endothia parasitica
   Ink disease  Phytophthora cambivora
 Chilli  Blight (Leaf spot)  Cercospora capsici
   Blight (Collar rot)  Phytophthora capsici
   Bacterial spot  Xanthomonas vesicatoria
 Chrysanthemum  Mildew  Oidium chrysanthemi
   Rust  Puccinia chrysanthemi
   Leaf spot Septoria chrysanthemella 
 Cinchona  Damping off  Pythium vexans
 Cineraria    Alternaria senecionis
 Citronella  Collar rot  
 Citrus  Sooty mould  Aithaloderma citri
   Thread blight  Corticium koleroga
   Melanose  Diaporthe citri
   Mal secco  Deuterophoma tracheiphila
   Scab  Elsinoe fawcetti
   Anthracnose (Wither tip)  Gloeosporium limetticola
   Sooty blotch  Leptothyrium pomi
   Black spot  Phoma citricarpa
   Brown rot  Phytophthora spp.
   Black pit  Pseudomonas syringae
   Septoria spot  Septoria depressa
   Canker  Xanthomonas citri
 Coffee  Brown eyespot  Cercospora coffeicola
   Thread blight (Black rot)  Corticium koleroga
   Anthracnose (Die back)  Glomerella cingulata
   Rust  Hemileia vastatrix
   Berry disease  Colletotrichum coffeanum
 Conifers  Blight  Cercospora thujina
   Coryneum blight  Coryneum berckmanii
   Canker  Coryneum cardinale
   Fusiform rust  Cronartium fusiforme
   Blister rust  Cronartium ribicola
   Leaf cast (of Kauri Pine)  Hendersonula agathi
   Needle cast (of Scots Pine)  Lophodermium pinastri
   Phomopsis blight  Phomopsis juniperovora
   Needle cast (of Douglas Fir)  Rhabdocline pseudotsugae
   Root rot  Rhizoctonia crocorum
 Cotton  Alternarii disease  Alternaria gossypii and Alternaria
   macrospora  
   Sore shin  Corticium solani
 Cowpea  Scab  Cladosporium vignae
 Cucurbits  Leaf blight  Alternaria cucumerina
   Wet rot  Choanephora cucurbitarum
   Anthracnose  Colletotrichum lagenarium
   Wilt  Erwinia tracheiphila
   Powdery mildew  Erysiphe cichoracearum
   Black rot  Mycosphaerella citrullina
   Stem end rot  Physalospora rhodina
   Downy mildew  Pseudoperonospora cubensis
 Currant (Ribes)  Leaf spot  Mycosphaerella grossulariae and Mycosphaerella ribis
   Leaf spot  Pseudopeziza ribis
 Cytisus  Die back  Ceratophorum setosum
 Daffodil  White mould  Ramularia vallisumbrosae
   Fire  Sclerotinia polyblastis
 Dahlia  Leaf spot  Phyllosticta dahliicola and Entyloma dahliae
 Dalo  Leaf spot  Phytophthora colocasiae
 Delphinium  Mildew  Erysiphe polygoni
 Derris  Leaf spot  Colletotrichum derridis
 Dogwood (Cornus)  Spot anthracnose  Elsinoe corni
 Egg Plant  Leaf spot  Ascochyta melongenae
   Damping off  Corticium solani
 Fig  Leaf fall and Fruit rot  Cercospora bolleana
   Rust  Cerotelium fici
   Thread blight  Corticium koleroga
   Canker  Phomopsis cinerescens
   Blight  Phizoctonia microsclerotia
 Filbert  Bud blight  Xanthomonas corylina
 Fruit trees  Crown gall  Bacterium tumefaciens
 Gambier  White root rot  Fomes lignosus
 Gardenia  Canker  Phomopsis gardenia
 Gerbera  Leaf spot  Cercospora sp.
 Ginseng  Blight  Alternaria panax
 Gladiolus  Corm rot  Botrytis gladiolorum
 Gooseberry  Die back  Botrytis cinerea
   Leaf spot  Mycosphaerella grossulariae
   Cluster cup rust  Puccinia pringshemiana
   American mildew  Sphaerotheca mors-uvae
 Grasses  Snow mould  Calonectria graminicola
   Red thread  Corticium fusiforme
   Brown patch of lawns  Rhizoctonia and Holminthosporium spp.
   Stripe smut  Ustilago striiformis
 Ground nut  Leaf spot  Cercospora arachidicola and Cercospora personate
   Stem rot (Southern blight)  Sclerotium rolfsii
 Guava  Leaf spot  Cephaleuros mycoidea
   Thread blight  Corticium koleroga
   Rust  Puccinia psidii
 Hellebore    Coniothyrium hellebori
 Hollyhock  Rust  Puccinia malvacearum
 Hop  Downy mildew  Pseudoperonospora humuli
   Powdery mildew  Sphaerotheca humuli
 Hydrangea  Mildew  Oidium hortensiae
 Leek  Mildew  Peronospora destructor
   White tip  Phytophthora porri
 Lettuce  Downy mildew  Bremia lactucae
   Ring spot  Marssonina panattoniana
Lily  Blight  Botrytis elliptica
 Maize  Downy mildew  Sclerospora philippinensis
 Mango  Red rust  Cephaleuros virescens
   Anthracnose  Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
   Scab  Elsinoe mangiferae
   Bacterial black spot  Erwinia mangiferae
   Anthracnose  Gloeosporium mangiferae
   Powdery mildew  Oidium mangiferae
 Medlar  Scab  Venturia eriobotryae
 Millet (Italian)  Smut  Ustilago crameri
 Mushroom  White mould  Mycogone perniciosa
   Bacterial blotch(Brown blotch)  Pseudomonas tolaasi
 Nectarine  Shot hole  Clasterosporium carpophilum
   Rust  Puccinia pruni-spinosae
   Blossom wilt  Sclerotinia laxa and Sclerotinia fructigena
   Leaf curl  Taphrina deformans
 Oats  Loose smut  Ustilago avanae
 Olive  Leaf spot  Cycloconium oleaginum
 Onion  Downy mildew  Peronospora destructor
 Orchids  Fusarium  Macrophoma and Diplodia spp.
 Paeony  Blight  Botrytis peaoniae
   Bud death  Sphaeropsis paeonia
 Palm ( Palmyra)  Leaf spot  Pestalotia palmarum
 Passion fruit  Brown spot  Alternaria passiflorae
   Grease spot  Pseudomonas passiflorae
 Pawpaw  Leaf spot  Ascochyta caricae
   Anthracnose (Fruit rot)  Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
   Powdery mildew  Oidium caricae
   Hard rot  Phytophthora parasitica
 Peach  Shot hole  Clasterosporium carpophilum
   Rust  Puccinia pruni-spinosae
   Blossom wilt  Sclerotinia laxa and Sclerotinia fructigena
   Leaf curl  Taphrina deformans
 Pear  Scab ( America)  Cladosporium effusum
   Thread blight  Corticium koleroga
   Firebiiglit  Erwinia amylovora
   Bitter rot  Glomerella cingulata
   Leaf spot (Leaf speck)  Mycosphaerella sentina
   Scab  Venturia pirina
 Pecan  Scab  Cladosporium effusum
   Thread blight  Corticium koleroga
   Vein spot  Gnomonia nerviseda
   Liver spot  Gnomonia caryae var. pecanae
 Pepper(Red)  See Chilli)  
 Persimmon  Canker  Phomopsis diospyri
 Pineapple  Heart or stern rot  Phytophthora parasitica
 Piper betle  (See Betel)  
 Plantain  Black tip  Helminthosporium torulosum
 Plum  Shot hole  Clasterosporium carpophilum
   Black rot  Dibotryon morbosum
   Bacterial canker  Pseudomonas mors-prunorum
   Wilt  Pseudomonas prunicola
   Rust  Puccinia pruni-spinosae
   Brown rot  Sclerotinia fructigena
   Blossom wilt  Sclerotinia laxa
   Watery rot (Pocket plums)  Taphrina pruni
   Bacterial spot  Xanthomonas pruni
 Poplar    Septogloeum populiperdun
 Poppy  Downy mildew  Peronospora arborescens
 Potato  Early blight  Alternaria solani
   Grey mould  Botrytis cinerea
   Blight (Late blight)  Phytophthora infestans
   Dry rot  Sclerotium rolfsii
 Quince  Brown rot  Sclerotinia fructigena
   Shot hole  Clasterosporium carpophilum
 Raspberry  Spur blight  Didymella applanata
   Cane spot (Anthracnose)  Elsinoe veneta
   Cane wilt  Leptosphaeria coniothyrium
 Rhododendron  Leaf scorch (Bud blast)  Pycnostysanus azaleae
 Rhubarb  Downy mildew  Peronospora jaapiana
 Rice  Brown spot  Ophiobolus miyabeanus
   (Helmintliosporiosis)  
   Blast  Piricularia oryzae
 Rose  Black spot  Diplocarpon rosae
   Downy mildew  Peronospora sparsa
   Rust  Phragmidium mucronatum
   Leaf spot (Anthracnose)  Sphaceloma rosarum
   Mildew Sphaerotheca pannosa
 Rubber  American leaf disease  Dothidella ulei
   White root rot  Fomes lignosus
   Leaf disease  Helminthosporium heveae
   Stem disease  Pestalotia palmarum
   Abnormal leaf fall  Phytophthora palmivora
 Rye grass  Blind seed  Phialea temulenta
 Safflower  Rust  Puccinia carthami
 Seedlings  Damping off  Pythium debaryanum, Pythium and Rhizoctonia spp, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,etc
 Sorghum  Covered smut  Sphacelotheca sorghi
 Spinach  Leaf spot  Heterosporium variabile
   Downy mildew  Peronospora effusa
 Spindle tree  Mildew  Oidium euonymi-japonicae
 Stock  Leaf spot  Alternaria raphani
 Strawberry  Leaf spot  Mycosphaerella fragariae
 Sugar beet  Leaf spot  Cercospora beticola
   Downy mildew  Peronospora schactii
 Sunflower  Rust  Puccinia helianthi
   Wilt  Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
 Sweet potato  Wilt  Fusarium spp.
 Taro  Leaf spot  Phytophthora colocasiae
 Tea  Black rot (Die back)  Botryodiplodia theobromae
   Red rust  Cephaleuros niycoidea
   Blister blight  Exobasidium vexans
   Grey blight  Pestalotia theae
 Tobacco  Brown spot (Red rust)  Alternaria longipes
   Leaf spot  Ascochyta nicotianae
   Frog eye  Cercospora nicotianae
   Blue mould (Downy mildew)  Peronospora tabacina
   Wildfire  Pseudomonas tabacum
 Tomato  Early blight  Alternaria solani
   Leaf mould  Cladosporium fulvum
   Anthracnose  Colletotrichum phomoides
   Fruit rot  Didymella lycopersici
   Mildew  Leveilluia taurica
   Fruit rot  Phytophthora capsici
   Foot rot  Phytophthora cryptogea
   Blight (Late blight)  Phytophthora infestans
   Leaf spot  Septoria lycopersici
   Grey leaf spot  Stemphylium solani
   Bacterial spot  Xanthomonas vesicatoria
 Tuberose  Blight  Botrytis elliptica
 Tung  Thread blight  Corticium koleroga
 Veronica    Septoria exotici
 Vine (Grape)  "Coitre"  Coniothyrium diplodiella
   Anthracnose  Elsinoe ampelina
   Black rot  Guignardia bidwellii
   Leaf spot  Isariopsis fuckelli
   Bitter rot  Melanconium fuligineum
   Angular leaf spot  Mycosphaerella angulata
   Downy mildew  Plasmopara viticola
   Totbrenner  Pseudopeziza tracheiphila
   Powdery mildew  Uncinula necator
 Vine (Sultana)  Sooty dew  Exosporium sultanae
 Viola  Leaf spot  Centrospora acerina
 Violet  Scab  Sphaceloma violae
 Walnut  Ring spot  Ascochyta juglandis
   Anthracnose (Blotch)  Gnomonia leptostyla
   Downy leaf spot  Microstroma juglandis
   Blight  Xanthomonas juglandis
 Wheat  Root rot  Gibberella zeae
   Rust  Puccinia spp
   Snow damage  Pythium sp.
   Bunt Tilletia caries and Tilletia faetida 
 Willow  Black canker  Physalospora miyabeana
   Scab  Venturia chlorospora
 Zinnia  Wilt  Sclerotinia sclerotiorum